which of the following best describes autism spectrum disorders
Which of the following is true of the prevalence of autism. asked Aug 12, 2019 in Psychology by eWildFLower. Some autistic people need little or no support. Learn more about the social model of disability. If someone tries to sell you a fake treatment, you can report them to Trading Standards. A physician is evaluating a young child suspected of having autism spectrum disorder and has determined that the child demonstrates signs of hyperlexia. However, many autistic children talk at the same age a child without autism would. find it hard to be understood in conversations, find it hard to work out when to talk in conversations – you might never get to say what you want to say, or find yourself talking over other people, find it easier to communicate with other autistic people, be able to talk for a long time about the subjects that particularly interest you, show a great deal of enthusiasm for talking about subjects that interest you, but experience significant difficulty when trying to talk about other people’s interests, be able to answer other people’s questions, but struggle to know what questions to ask or how to answer when someone tells you something about themselves, find other people say you use a lot of long words, or use longer or more complicated words than most people, often use the same phrases when you’re talking, struggle with hidden meanings when other people are talking to you – it might be difficult for you to understand a ‘hint’, or notice when someone is flirting with you, find people can take the wrong meaning from your words or behaviour – for example, if you make a lot of eye contact, they might think you’re flirting with them, find eye contact uncomfortable, or struggle to know how much eye contact to use, do well when you’re in your routine, but find it difficult when routines change – changes might make you feel anxious, make it hard to concentrate, or mean you have to work harder on things it’d normally be easy to do, struggle to imagine things that you haven’t experienced before – for example, if you’re going to a party for the first time, it might be hard for you to imagine what will happen and what you’ll be expected to do, find yourself making social mistakes without realising why – for example, during conversations you might not realise there are things other people would rather not talk about, or don’t think are important to talk about, have a lot of knowledge on particular topics, and spend a lot of time learning about them and telling others about them, have a hobby you feel very passionate about and spend a lot of time on, find it hard to start a new activity but get very focused on it once you get started – you might be able to focus on it better than most people, find it difficult to stop doing an activity you’re very focused on, even if you need to move on to something else – you might forget to eat or sleep, spend a lot of time being careful to avoid making social mistakes, or trying to make sure you don’t accidentally hurt anyone’s feelings, find that other people struggle to understand your feelings from your face or tone of voice, find that your friends are often older or younger than you, find that your friends tend to be autistic people, have to ask people to explain idioms (phrases that say one thing, when they’re actually talking about something else), for example: “we’ll cross that bridge when we come to it”, which means “we’ll talk about that problem later”, have a clear idea of right and wrong, and strong views on issues that are important to you – you might struggle to understand exceptions to rules, or ‘grey areas’, find a lot of people don’t understand your sense of humour, and you might not understand why their jokes are funny, be trusting, and find people can often take advantage of you, find it hard to work out when someone is being unkind, have a strong negative reaction to sounds, smells, sights, and things you can touch – for example, being unable to wear certain types of clothing or find it overwhelming being in places with a lot of different noises, like gyms, have a strong positive reaction to sounds, smells, sights, and things you can touch – for example, enjoying flashing, multi-coloured lights in nightclubs or how loud the music is at a concert, seek out certain sounds, smells, feelings or tastes because you find them particularly calming – for example, coloured lights or soft clothing and blankets, find making repetitive movements (often with your hands, fingers or legs) or sounds calming or enjoyable, find it more difficult than most people to communicate in interviews – for example, talking about your skills – which can make it hard to get a job, find it more difficult than most people to keep a job – you may be good at your work, but it might be hard to have good relationships with colleagues and managers, have a lot of knowledge or feel very passionate about a subject that’s useful for your work or studies, find it difficult or frustrating when rules or ways of doing things don’t make sense to you, find it more difficult than most people would to work on a project or task that has unclear instructions for how to complete it, find socialising hard work – when others seem to have a lot of energy after meeting a group of friends, for example, you might feel exhausted, have had relationships with friends or partners end because you couldn’t understand how each other thought, behaved, and communicated, find it difficult to make ‘small talk’ – meaning conversation about day-to-day things such as the weather – or understand the reasons for making small talk, enjoy spending time with other people, but find activities that don’t have clear ‘rules’ or a schedule – for example, going to parties or nightclubs – difficult because you aren’t sure what to do, prefer meeting up with people to do structured activities, like cooking or taking part in a shared hobby or interest, have a lot of detailed knowledge about a particular topic or hobby and feel very passionate about it, find that the hobbies or topics you’re particularly passionate about have changed several times in your life, find other people often misunderstand you, or seem upset by things you say even if you don’t mean to upset them, find it hard to understand why people around you see a situation one way, and not the way you understand it, find change more difficult than most people do – things that disrupt your daily routine, like changes to your job or going on holiday, can make you feel stressed and anxious, have a strong negative reaction to sounds, smells, sights, and things you can touch – for example, being unable to wear certain types of clothing or find it overwhelming being in places with a lot of different noises, like busy buses or trains, have a strong positive reaction to sounds, smells, sights, and things you can touch – for example, enjoying lying under a weighted blanket, or the loudness of the music at a concert, neurofibromatosis – a number of genetic conditions that cause tumours to grow along the nerves (the main types are neurofibromatosis type 1 and neurofibromatosis type 2), rare genetic conditions, including fragile X syndrome, tuberous sclerosis and Rett syndrome, help with communicating, both for autistic people and the people in their lives, groups for autistic people to share experiences and advice, sensory assessments and support with an occupational therapist to help find ways of managing and improving your environment and how you experience the world, training courses for loved ones, to help them understand autism and offer the best possible support, trying to get away from people – for example by running away or hiding, trying to get people away from them – for example by shouting, screaming, hitting, or acting aggressively, trying to meet sensory needs – for example, wanting to do something because it feels nice, like rubbing soaps and creams all over themselves and the walls, wanting something – for example, being hungry or wanting to play with a toy, needing assistance or attention – for example, because they're bored or want help with a project at school, trying to escape an environment or the people around them, but doing so in a way that can be dangerous or harmful, such as running into the road, being destructive – breaking things, for example, being disruptive – making noise in class or throwing things, for example, sensory changes – for example, being given a quiet space to work, being able to use sensory toys like fidget spinners, or being allowed to make noises while working, communication changes – for example, using email or apps to communicate, using very clear language, allowing additional time to ask questions, or using visual communication such as photos or pictures as well as written words, routine – keeping to a regular routine and giving warning of any changes as far in advance as possible, any treatment that aims to ‘train out’ autistic behaviours, like forcing someone to stop making repetitive movements, any treatment that aims to train autistic people to do things that cause them distress, in an attempt to change their behaviour and remove autistic characteristics, hyperbaric oxygen therapy – treatment with oxygen in a pressurised chamber, chelation therapy, which uses medication or other methods to remove metal from the body, chlorine dioxide (CD), also called Mineral Miracle Solution (MMS) – this is a bleach solution given via enema which can cause severe distress and physical harm, neurofeedback – where an autistic person’s brain activity is monitored, usually by placing electrodes on their head, so they can see their brain activity on a screen and be told how to change it, facilitated communication – where a therapist or another person supports and guides an autistic person's hand or arm while using a device such as a computer keyboard or mouse, auditory integration training – this involves an autistic person listening to music that has changes in tone, pitch, and volume, claim to ‘cure’ autism or help people ‘recover’ from autism, claim the treatment works quickly or instantly, claim the treatment can be done at home by anyone, and you don’t need training or qualifications, claim you can’t trust doctors to be honest with you, or say “doctors don’t want you to know about this”, ask autistic people, or parents of children with autism, to rely on their knowledge of their body or their child’s body instead of considering scientific evidence that can tell you whether a treatment is harmful or helpful, have no scientific evidence to prove they work, such as peer-reviewed studies or information from the NHS, mainly use personal stories as evidence that they work, which makes it hard to tell if the stories are true, advertise themselves with words like ‘miracle’, ‘faith’, and ‘trust’, or use religious phrases, charge a lot of money, and often require money to be paid on a regular basis, promote treatments for autism that aren’t available on the NHS, or claim to be ‘experimental’. Autism is covered by the Equality Act (2010), which means that schools and employers are required to make “reasonable adjustments” to ensure autistic people are comfortable in their environment and able to learn or work. As children grow and experience different environments, such as nursery and school, the characteristics of autism can appear differently. Many people who have been diagnosed with autism prefer using the term ‘autistic’ to describe themselves – this is known as identity-first language (for example, “I’m autistic”). "Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity" is included as part of which criterion for ASD diagnosis: If you have one child with autism, you have a 20% chance of having a second child with autism. Autism spectrum disorder is the diagnostic label given to a broad category of neurodevelopmental disorders.. The social model of disability is a way of looking at the world that treats the difficulties people with disabilities have as being caused by barriers in society, rather than just the disabilities themselves. Asperger syndrome was, essentially, a synonym for "high functioning autism," while autistic disorder meant almost the sam… This kind of behaviour is most common in children, or people who find it hard to communicate their needs – for example, people with a learning disability. Which of the following best describes the cause for autism spectrum disorders? A. CDC is working to find out how many children have ASDs, discover the risk factors, and raise awareness of the signs. Which of the following statements is correct about the autism spectrum? Read more about characteristics of autism. There are many incorrect beliefs about autism, particularly the causes of autism or the best ways to overcome the challenges often faced by autistic people. Psychologists are in the middle of a diagnostic upheaval. The way these characteristics show themselves can change with age, and also with the situation you’re in. The following text is mostly an excerpt from Boundless.com (n.d.) Psychology/Textbooks/Boundless Psychology/Psychological Disorders/Neurodevelopmental Disorders/Autism Spectrum Disorder, CC-BY-SA 4.0 Defining Autism Spectrum Disorder. They consider autism to be part of their identity, not a condition to be treated. While it can be challenging for the people around them, this behaviour is often a result of distress or frustration, particularly if an autistic person has difficulty with communicating. However, many autistic people can benefit from support in learning skills to overcome some of the difficulties they experience – this is different to forcing someone to change their behaviour. Don’t include personal information e.g. B) Fixated interests or preservation only appear in individuals with autism who are lower functioning. People, organisations, or websites that promote fake treatments usually: Healthcare professionals have put together information on what treatments are safe and unsafe, and on ways to support autistic people effectively. b) complex eating disorder caused by a combination of genetic and environmental influences. Check all that apply C Patients will often interact appropriately with their parents, but not other adults In some cases, patients will repeat questions rather than answering them. ) It's an umbrella term which includes autism, Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorders. Autism spectrum disorder is an umbrella term for a group of related symptoms with multiple causes. This means that they have difficulties with day-to-day life due to their autistic traits and need to use their own ways of overcoming those difficulties, or the people in their life need to help them to overcome them, or both. Not respond to their name by 12 months of age 2. The causes are not definitively known at this time but appear to be a combination of environmental and genetic factors. These barriers can be physical – for example, buildings not having accessible toilets. There’s no cure for autism, but many people incorrectly believe there are ways to cure it, or to change the way autistic people experience and interact with the world. Autism is called a “spectrum” disorder because it’s not the same for everyone. Which of the following statements is true of autism spectrum disorder? Warning signs commonly associated with autistic disorder … Autism doesn’t mean that a person will need additional support to work, have relationships, or enjoy hobbies. Behaviour that challenges others is usually a way for someone to get their needs met when they don’t have any other way to do so. This doesn’t mean that everyone is ‘a little bit autistic’, or that autistic people don’t need support. Autism means that the way you think about and experience the world is different to most people. Any special diet should only be done under the supervision of a dietician or nutritionist. Services that assist teenagers and young adults to plan and set up support for their life when they leave high school. Being in a supportive environment makes a big difference to an autistic person’s wellbeing and quality of life. Select the statement below that best describes the causes of autism spectrum disorders. Many people are diagnosed with autism as teenagers or adults based on noticing that they think and behave differently from most other people. Autistic children are often able to communicate best with those closest to them about what they enjoy and don’t enjoy. Therapy techniques might need to be adapted to work for an autistic person. 5. Language with its own grammatical rules. D. It is marked by inattention, impulsiveness, and a … At the moment, people assigned male at birth are diagnosed with autism more often than people assigned female at birth. This can include doing things like: During a shutdown, an autistic person might try to block everything out – for example by not responding to anything or anyone around them. a. Learn more about autism from autistic people. The causes of autism. Have delayed speech and language skills 7. The social model of disability can be a helpful way of considering the difficulties someone faces, and how to adapt their environment so it works for them. Select the statement below that best describes the causes of autism spectrum disorders. People who have these conditions can be more likely to also have autism: The exact cause of autism is unknown, but researchers think it’s at least partly genetic – that autism can run in the family. a child with asd might show any of the following behaviors: *has trouble relating to others *avoids eye contact *prefers to be alone *dislikes being embraced *repeats words, phrases, or actions Current research is not clear if this increase due to a specific cause or due to improved knowledge, leading to higher rates of detecting and diagnosing these conditions. For example, an autistic adult might want to learn extra social skills to improve their relationships at work, or a therapist may work with a child and parent to help them to develop their communication skills. The way autism affects you can change as you grow and develop, and experience different environments. There are a number of ways to identify a fake treatment. Which of the following BEST describes the condition of this child? C. It is not a severe developmental disability and can be easily cured. Autism is highly variable – the word ‘spectrum’ refers to how autism is experienced differently by different people. ASD can also affect learning and problem-solving abilities. The causes are not definitively known at this time but appear to be a combination of environmental and genetic factors. If there’s an autistic person in your life, it’s important to ask them what they’d prefer and if there’s anything you can do to make a new environment more comfortable for them. Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a term used to describe a number of symptoms and behaviours which affect the way in which a group of people understand and react to the world around them. Types of Autism Spectrum Disorders: It’s important to know that there are three quite different types of autism spectrum disorders: autistic disorder or what is called classic autism, Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder – not otherwise specified (atypical autism). A) Fixated interests commonly appear in people with autism. The DSM-5 eliminated all of the following diagnoses except: Because there is a broad array of symptoms and impairments in people diagnosed with ASD that affect people in different ways. Currently, between 1 in 3 and 1 in 4 people diagnosed with autism are assigned female at birth. Harmful and dangerous fake treatments include: There are some treatments that don’t have any evidence to suggest they’re helpful, but also don’t have evidence to suggest they’re harmful as long as they’re done safely. With the autism spectrum given in DSM-5, all diagnostic ambiguities have been clarified. Autism means that the way you think about and experience the world is different to most people. Which term best describes Jeremy? All chapters will be archived here. The signs of autism can change as children grow – babies and toddlers show different signs of autism than children aged 4 and older. D. The cause remains largely unknown. The disorder also includes limited and repetitive patterns of behavior. Autism Spectrum is just a broader term for the base disorder. Which statement best describes this characteristic? Depending on what’s offered by your NHS board and local organisations, there are therapies to help overcome the challenges that autistic people can experience. c. Childhood schizophrenia probably accounts for much of ASD. There is some evidence to show a link between gender dysphoria and autism, and that autistic people may be more likely than other people to have gender dysphoria. It usually appears in the first three years and typically continues throughout life. According to the U.S. Department of Education, what percentage of students are identified as deaf or hard of hearing? They can live like other people in their own homes and have jobs with the right planning and support. NOT teaching pivotal skills like motivation. These are signs of autism that health professionals look for when making a diagnosis, but an autistic person may not have all of these signs. It may also take time to find the environments that suit your needs, and to learn which ones to avoid. Autism is considered a spectrum because it’s different for every autistic person – some autistic people might need more support than others to live the lives they want to lead. You might also have developed coping strategies for environments you find difficult, changing the way you manage them. Sometimes, when a situation is too much to cope with due to sensory input (things you see, hear, feel, smell or taste), or being asked to do things that cause stress or distress, an autistic person can become overwhelmed. In addition to Criterion A, how many other criteria must a person must exhibit in order to receive a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder? Every autistic person finds different things difficult, but common examples are: Many environments allow autistic people to feel more comfortable and be themselves. There are no medical issues that co-occur with autism. For example, some autism characteristics (things you think, feel and do) can make it hard to express yourself in social situations, but you may also be particularly knowledgeable and passionate about topics that interest you. The signs of autism can be different depending on the person and how old they are. Autism and gender identity. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability that affects an individual's ability to communicate (e.g., the ability to use language to express one's needs) and the ability to engage in social interaction (e.g., the ability to engage in joint attention). Barriers can also be caused by people’s attitudes – for example, many people will assume someone is lying because they don’t make eye contact while talking. Vaccines or substances in vaccines are responsible for the increase in autism spectrum disorder diagnoses. Early intervention, in the form of support for their individual needs, can be helpful for autistic children. Question 13 1 / 1 pts The symptoms of autism spectrum disorders usually emerge by which age? In this guide, we’ll mostly use the term ‘autistic’. The child demonstrates difficulty modulating vocal volume. Why is autism spectrum disorder referred to as a "spectrum"? View Chapter 6 Outline - Autism Spectrum Disorder (1).docx from PSY 0130 at Atlantic City High School. At least 1 in 100 people in Scotland are autistic. The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) focuses on . name, location or any personal health conditions. b. Interventions that aim to ‘train out’ behaviours (like repetitive movements, for example) or force autistic people to behave like non-autistic people are unethical and often harmful. What are "Transition Services" for people with autism spectrum disorder? Find out more. Every autistic person is different and has different experiences. People assigned female at birth can be more likely to ‘mask’ autism – they learn how to hide autism characteristics and copy what people without autism do, in order to fit into groups. Common changes to an environment that can help autistic people include: Every autistic person is likely to benefit from different changes – the best way to find the right ones is to ask an autistic person, or in the case of a child, their parents or caregivers. Autism is shorthand for the medical term “Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). It’s also possible that these signs are there, but they aren’t caused by autism. What definition best describes autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a) complex developmental brain disorder caused by a combination of genetic and environmental influences. Which one of the following best describes ASL? If someone in your life is autistic, or you’re the parent or caregiver of an autistic child, finding the right strategies for supporting their needs is important and helpful, and can be done if there’s effective support for everyone involved. Environment is important to quality of life for autistic people. This means you can behave differently to most people, and have different strengths and difficulties. For example, some autism characteristics (things you think, feel and do) can make it hard to express … asked Jul 12, 2015 in Psychology by jonjon. Which of the following describes some aspect of how these appear in autism spectrum disorder? A child is brought to a physicians office for a comprehensive evaluation, with parental suspicions of autism spectrum disorder. Which of the following BEST describes the behaviors exhibited by this child? However, it may only be recognised later in life. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are a group of developmental disabilities that can cause significant social, communication and behavioral challenges. It describes a wide range of conditions. In the past, autism was broken down into several different diagnoses, including: Because these diagnoses all had the characteristics of autism, they were removed and replaced with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), or autism for short. Because of the difficulties they can experience, autistic people may need treatment or support for other conditions, including: Psychological therapies like cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) are often used to treat depression, anxiety, and sleep problems, both in people who have autism and people who don’t. It causes children to demand increased social contact. 4. autism is best described as what? There’s no cure for autism, and most autistic people wouldn’t want to be ‘cured’ even if it was possible. A person with ASD might: 1. According to the 2015 report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), what is the prevalence of the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders in children? Two critical areas of assessment for students with autism spectrum disorders are progress in. At what age does the American Academy of Pediatricians recommend that children first be screened for autism? There’s no way to predict whether a child will be autistic, even if one or both of their parents are autistic. b. B. The number of cases of Autism spectrum disorder is increasing each year. Additionally, the individual may have a restricted range of interests or repetitive behavior. However, there are some characteristics that are common in autistic people. Like everyone else, autistic people can be happy and healthy in the right environment – however, the right environment for an autistic person can be different to the right environment for a non-autistic person. WebMD explains autism spectrum disorders, including Asperger's syndrome, Rett syndrome, PDD-NOS, and childhood disintegrative disorder. language development and social/adaptive behavior. asked Apr 15, 2016 in Psychology by Angie. Applied behavior analysis (ABA) the science in which tactics derived from the principles of behavior are applied systematically to improve socially significant behavior and experimentation is used to identify the variables responsible for behavior change. These include special diets, such as gluten-free or casein-free diets. If you see someone promoting a fake or harmful treatment on social media or a web forum, you can make a report to the administrators of that online community. Often these include challenges with communication, social skills, and repetitive or restricted behavior. These therapies don’t aim to change a person’s autism, but to give them skills they can use. To be diagnosed with autism, a person has to have a lot of autistic traits from birth, and those traits need to have a big effect on their life. Between the ages of 18 and 24 months at regular doctor visits. 12–18 months 3–6 months 6–12 months 18–24 months Question 14 1 / 1 pts What is an example of intersensory redundancy? Bad ’ behaviour, or that autistic people, and repetitive patterns of behavior related symptoms with causes! Autism both which of the following best describes autism spectrum disorders difficulties with social communication and behavioral challenges and genetic factors all diagnostic ambiguities have clarified. The same for everyone disorder that included five distinct diagnoses also with the situation you ’ re about... The word ‘ spectrum ’ refers to how autism is highly variable the! They are medical issues that co-occur with autism spectrum disorders affect people in different degrees in repetitive.. 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