Carthaginian culture came into contact with the Greeks through Punic colonies in Sicily and through their widespread Mediterranean trade network. Greece in the Hellenistic Age. After their defeats by Pergamon and Rome the Galatians slowly became hellenized and they were called "Gallo-Graeci" by the historian Justin as well as Ἑλληνογαλάται (Hellēnogalátai) by Diodorus Siculus in his Bibliotheca historica v.32.5, who wrote that they were "called Helleno-Galatians because of their connection with the Greeks.". Hellenistic monarchies were closely associated with the religious life of the kingdoms they ruled. While it may have been a deliberate attempt to spread Greek culture (or as Arrian says, "to civilise the natives"), it is more likely that it was a series of pragmatic measures designed to aid in the rule of his enormous empire. His edicts appear carved on rocks and a number of free-standing pillars which are found right across India. Although they initially resisted, allying themselves with Pyrrhus of Epirus, and defeating the Romans at several battles, the Greek cities were unable to maintain this position and were absorbed by the Roman republic. The old city-states of Greece, including great cities such as Athens, began to decline during the Hellenistic period. Finally, between 146 and 30 B.C. In 192 BC, war broke out between Rome and the Seleucid ruler Antiochus III. In 247 BC, following the death of Antiochus II Theos, Andragoras, the Seleucid governor of Parthia, proclaimed his independence and began minting coins showing himself wearing a royal diadem and claiming kingship. Much of the eastern part of the empire was then conquered by the Parthians under Mithridates I of Parthia in the mid-2nd century BC, yet the Seleucid kings continued to rule a rump state from Syria until the invasion by the Armenian king Tigranes the Great and their ultimate overthrow by the Roman general Pompey. In 215 BC, however, Philip formed an alliance with Rome's enemy Carthage, which drew Rome directly into Greek affairs for the first time. While Sparta remained independent, it became a political backwater. Xanthippus reformed the Carthaginian military along Macedonian army lines. Like the Ptolemies, Antiochus I established a dynastic religious cult, deifying his father Seleucus I. Seleucus, officially said to be descended from Apollo, had his own priests and monthly sacrifices. Athens would later also establish a cult for the Pergamene king Attalos I. Antigonus II died in 239 BC. Large numbers of his coins have been found in India, and he seems to have reigned in Gandhara as well as western Punjab. Athens, with its multiple philosophical schools, continued to remain the center of philosophical thought. That is why the period from 323 BC to 27 BC became known as the Hellenistic period. The result was the end of Macedon as a major power in the Mediterranean. Though some of these regions were not ruled by Greeks or even Greek speaking elites, certain Hellenistic influences can be seen in the historical record and material culture of these regions. Aratus preferred distant Macedon to nearby Sparta, and allied himself with Doson, who in 222 BC defeated the Spartans and annexed their city – the first time Sparta had ever been occupied by a foreign power. Nevertheless, Roman rule at least brought an end to warfare, and cities such as Athens, Corinth, Thessaloniki and Patras soon recovered their prosperity. After initial successes, he was forced to surrender to Seleucus in 285 BC and later died in captivity. This was the first time a European force had invaded the region. It later became a Roman client state.  The city became a dominant trading hub and center of Hellenistic civilization in Iberia, eventually siding with the Roman Republic against the Carthaginian Empire during the Second Punic War (218–201 BC). During the Hellenistic period, many different schools of thought developed, and these schools of Hellenistic philosophy had a significant influence on the Greek and Roman ruling elite. The museum and library of Alexandria was the center of this conservationist activity.  Lysimachus, who had seized Macedon and Thessaly for himself, was forced into war when Seleucus invaded his territories in Asia Minor and was defeated and killed in 281 BC at the Battle of Corupedium, near Sardis. Bivar, A.D.H. When he was driven out of Greece by the Roman general Lucius Cornelius Sulla, the latter laid siege to Athens and razed the city. How many Hellenistic Greek trade items can you find in your house? Much of the jewelry in Ancient Greece, the Hellenistic Period specifically (approx. 5.5 Hellenistic Period (323 – 30 BCE) • Begins after the death of Alexander the Great (323 BCE); lasts through the defeat of Cleopatra and Mark Anthony by the Romans at the Battle of Actium (30 BCE) • Relate the influence on Greek architecture as a result of the expansion of the Greek world. It greatly widened the horizons of the Greeks, making the endless conflicts between the cities which had marked the 5th and 4th centuries BC seem petty and unimportant. This was primarily a result of the over-ambition of the Macedonian kings, and their unintended provocation of Rome, though Rome was quick to exploit the situation. During the reign of Mithridates I of Parthia, Arsacid control expanded to include Herat (in 167 BC), Babylonia (in 144 BC), Media (in 141 BC), Persia (in 139 BC), and large parts of Syria (in the 110s BC). Many Greeks migrated to Alexandria, Antioch and the many other new Hellenistic cities founded in Alexander's wake, as far away as modern Afghanistan and Pakistan. Walbank et al. Classical Greece and Hellenistic Greece have a lot of differences. Doson led Macedon to victory in the war against the Spartan king Cleomenes III, and occupied Sparta. Pliny the Elder, after having described the sculpture of the classical period, says: Cessavit deinde ars ("then art disappeared"). The Greeks in the regions therefore gradually become 'localized', adopting local customs as appropriate. The Numidian royal monument at Chemtou is one example of Numidian Hellenized architecture. More about Roman Greece Bibliography and further reading about the Hellenistic economy: Trade & Warfare, by Robert Hull (2000). Hellenistic philosophy went through a peculiar evolution—or retrogression, it might almost be better to say. The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire, as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year. Eumenes II turned Pergamon into a centre of culture and science by establishing the library of Pergamum which was said to be second only to the library of Alexandria with 200,000 volumes according to Plutarch. 370 BC), the Achaean League (est. The Spartan king Cleomenes III (235–222 BC) staged a military coup against the conservative ephors and pushed through radical social and land reforms in order to increase the size of the shrinking Spartan citizenry able to provide military service and restore Spartan power. Ptolemy invaded Syria and defeated Antigonus' son, Demetrius Poliorcetes, in the Battle of Gaza of 312 BC which allowed Seleucus to secure control of Babylonia, and the eastern satrapies. However the socio-political changes brought on by the conquest of the Persian empire and Greek emigration abroad meant that change also came to religious practices. The Galatians were well respected as warriors and were widely used as mercenaries in the armies of the successor states. A history timeline of the Hellenistic period of ancient Greek history. During the reign of the Artaxiads, Armenia went through a period of hellenization. The Greek-language word Hellas (Ἑλλάς, Ellás) was originally the widely recognized name of Greece, from which the word Hellenistic was derived. Galatia was henceforth dominated by Rome through regional rulers from 189 BC onward. Pontic culture was a mix of Greek and Iranian elements; the most hellenized parts of the kingdom were on the coast, populated by Greek colonies such as Trapezus and Sinope, the latter of which became the capital of the kingdom. Poor generalship by the Romans enabled him to hold out for three years, but in 168 BC the Romans sent Lucius Aemilius Paullus to Greece, and at Pydna the Macedonians were crushingly defeated. After the Battle of Beneventum (275 BC) Pyrrhus lost all his Italian holdings and left for Epirus. Art of the Hellenistic Age and the Hellenistic Tradition. Despite their initial reluctance, the Successors seem to have later deliberately naturalized themselves to their different regions, presumably in order to help maintain control of the population.  Cities and colonies were centers of administrative control and Macedonian power in a newly conquered region. Victorious, the Romans abolished the Macedonian kingdom, replacing it with four puppet republics; these lasted a further twenty years before Macedon was formally annexed as a Roman province (146 BC) after yet another rebellion under Andriscus. The Hellenistic period was an era in Ancient Greece that lasted from 323 BCE to 31 CE. The Indo-Greek kingdom appears to have lingered on in western Punjab until about AD 10, at which time it was finally ended by the Indo-Scythians. The Hellenistic period saw the Greek alphabet spread into southern Gaul from Massalia (3rd and 2nd centuries BC) and according to Strabo, Massalia was also a center of education, where Celts went to learn Greek. The Hellenistic West, pp. Hellenism, have been widely used in various contexts; a notable such use is in Culture and Anarchy by Matthew Arnold, where Hellenism is used in contrast with Hebraism.. As mentioned by Peter Green, numerous factors of conquest have been merged under the term Hellenistic period. Ptolemy I even created a new god, Serapis, who was combination of two Egyptian gods: Apis and Osiris, with attributes of Greek gods. After the Seleucid defeat at the Battle of Magnesia in 190 BC, the kings of Sophene and Greater Armenia revolted and declared their independence, with Artaxias becoming the first king of the Artaxiad dynasty of Armenia in 188 BC. Despite being ruled by a dynasty which was a descendant of the Persian Achaemenid Empire it became hellenized due to the influence of the Greek cities on the Black Sea and its neighboring kingdoms. By the time he died 13 years later, Alexander had built an empire that stretched from Greece all the way to India. Macedon was no match for this army, and Perseus was unable to rally the other Greek states to his aid. Pyrrhus then went to war with Macedonia in 275 BC, deposing Antigonus II Gonatas and briefly ruling over Macedonia and Thessaly until 272. The Roman consul Lucius Mummius advanced from Macedonia and defeated the Greeks at Corinth, which was razed to the ground. The Greek historian of the Hellenistic Period Polybius asked: "Who is so thoughtless and lazy that he does not want to know in what way and with what kind of government the Romans in less than 53 years conquered the entire inhabited world and brought it under their rule- … This Roman-Greek interaction began as a consequence of the Greek city-states located along the coast of southern Italy. This period also saw the first written works of art history in the histories of Duris of Samos and Xenocrates of Athens, a sculptor and a historian of sculpture and painting. However, Greek urban civilisation seems to have continued in Bactria after the fall of the kingdom, having a hellenising effect on the tribes which had displaced Greek rule. Antigonus fled for Greece, and then, together with Antipater and Craterus (the satrap of Cilicia who had been in Greece fighting the Lamian war) invaded Anatolia. They retained their independence by the maintenance of a powerful navy, by maintaining a carefully neutral posture and acting to preserve the balance of power between the major Hellenistic kingdoms.. The Hellenistic Period began following the death of Alexander in 323 B.C., and lasted until 31 B.C., by which time the Romans had almost conquered all the territories under Macedonian rule.  Known as the "Father of Geography", Eratosthenes also created the first map of the world incorporating parallels and meridians, based on the available geographical knowledge of the era. But in 301 BC a coalition of Cassander and the other Hellenistic kings defeated Antigonus at the Battle of Ipsus, ending his challenge. Hellenistic refers to Greek language and culture. A whole class of petty officials, tax farmers, clerks and overseers made this possible. In 307 BC he took Athens, expelling Demetrius of Phaleron, Cassander's governor, and proclaiming the city free again. ... Art continued to flourish during the Hellenistic period with talented sculptors creating dramatic pieces of art. After the death of Pyrrhus, Epirus remained a minor power.  The Achaean League eventually included all of the Peloponnese except Sparta, while the Aetolian League expanded into Phocis. It was not until the reign of Phraates I (c. 176–171 BC), that the Arsacids would again begin to assert their independence.. The Peloponnesian War: A Military Study (Warfare and History) by J. F. Lazenby,2003, page 224,"... number of strongholds, and he made himself useful fighting 'the Thracians without a king' on behalf of the more Hellenized Thracian kings and their Greek neighbours (Nepos, Alc. Finally, in 27 BC, Augustus directly annexed Greece to the new Roman Empire as the province of Achaea. The mlecchas are wedded to the creations of their own fancy", such as flying machines that are generally called vimanas. Hellenistic poets now sought patronage from kings, and wrote works in their honor. The major literary product of this cultural syncretism is the Septuagint translation of the Hebrew Bible from Biblical Hebrew and Biblical Aramaic to Koiné Greek. Under Ptolemy II, Callimachus, Apollonius of Rhodes, Theocritus, and a host of other poets including the Alexandrian Pleiad made the city a center of Hellenistic literature. The land and people of Israel were now part of the Hellenistic world. Athens remained aloof from this conflict by common consent. The Attalids ruled Pergamon until Attalus III bequeathed the kingdom to the Roman Republic in 133 BC to avoid a likely succession crisis. The Hellenistic period refers to the time from the death of Alexander the Great or the end of the Greek Classical Era in 323 B.C. 323 B.C. He considerably enlarged the Temple (see Herod's Temple), making it one of the largest religious structures in the world. In 189 BC, Rome sent Gnaeus Manlius Vulso on an expedition against the Galatians. This period also saw the rise of the ancient Greek novel, such as Daphnis and Chloe and the Ephesian Tale. The Hellenistic period saw the rise of New Comedy, Alexandrian poetry, the Septuagint and the philosophies of Stoicism, Epicureanism, and Pyrrhonism. Ancient Greece had traditionally been a fractious collection of fiercely independent city-states. Like most Roman peace treaties of the period, the resultant 'Peace of Flaminius' was designed utterly to crush the power of the defeated party; a massive indemnity was levied, Philip's fleet was surrendered to Rome, and Macedon was effectively returned to its ancient boundaries, losing influence over the city-states of southern Greece, and land in Thrace and Asia Minor. Cassander's power was challenged by Antigonus, ruler of Anatolia, who promised the Greek cities that he would restore their freedom if they supported him. Antigonus II ruled until his death in 239 BC, and his family retained the Macedonian throne until it was abolished by the Romans in 146 BC.  A common practice was to identify Greek gods with native gods that had similar characteristics and this created new fusions like Zeus-Ammon, Aphrodite Hagne (a Hellenized Atargatis) and Isis-Demeter. Preserved examples of ball projectiles range from 4.4 to 78 kg (9.7 to 172.0 lb). Hellenistic Greece's definitive end was with the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, when the future emperor Augustus defeated Greek Ptolemaic queen Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony Hellenistic culture was at its height of world influence in the Hellenistic period. Afterwards he invaded southern Greece, and was killed in battle against Argos in 272 BC. He immediately initiated a series of major military reforms. Rome had come to dominate the Italian peninsula, and desired the submission of the Greek cities to its rule. In the early 2nd century BC, the Galatians became allies of Antiochus the Great, the last Seleucid king trying to regain suzerainty over Asia Minor. During the reign of Mithridates II, Pontus was allied with the Seleucids through dynastic marriages.  He then began expanding his influence into Pergamene territory in Asia and crossed into Europe, fortifying Lysimachia on the Hellespont, but his expansion into Anatolia and Greece was abruptly halted after a decisive defeat at the Battle of Magnesia (190 BC). Even barbarians, such as the Galatians, were depicted in heroic form, prefiguring the artistic theme of the noble savage. Hinüber (2000), pp. After Demetrius captured Macedon, Athens became allied with Ptolemaic Egypt in an effort to gain its independence from Demetrius, and with Ptolemaic troops they managed to rebel and defeat Macedon in 287, though the Piraeus remained garrisoned. Armies of the Hellenistic period differed from those of the classical period in being largely made up of professional soldiers and also in their greater specialization and technical proficiency in siege warfare.  The Greek population of the cities who formed the dominant elite were reinforced by emigration from Greece. The Ptolemies took on the traditions of the Egyptian Pharaohs, such as marrying their siblings (Ptolemy II was the first to adopt this custom), having themselves portrayed on public monuments in Egyptian style and dress, and participating in Egyptian religious life. The period of Hellenistic influence, when taken as a whole, constitutes one of the most creative periods in the history of religions. Ptolemy himself was eager to patronise the library, scientific research and individual scholars who lived on the grounds of the library. In addition, much of the area conquered would continue to be ruled by the Diadochi, Alexander's generals and successors. Many Greeks migrated to Alexandria, Antioch and the many other new Hellenistic cities founded in Alexander's wake, as far away as what are now Afghanistan and Pakistan, where the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom and the Indo-Greek Kingdom survived until the end of the 1st century BC. Pliny reports that Hipparchus produced the first systematic star catalog after he observed a new star (it is uncertain whether this was a nova or a comet) and wished to preserve astronomical record of the stars, so that other new stars could be discovered. Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC, at a time when the ancient inhabitants of ancient Greece were struggling to repel devastating invasions from the east. Octavian, who later became the emperor Augustus, defeated Marc Antony’s fleet and, consequently, ended Ptolemaic rule. The second Diadochi war began following the death of Antipater in 319 BC. The religious ideas in Greece itself and the western part of the Alexandrian Empire, however, changed very slowly, because the Greeks, now masters of the world, felt no need for change. Most of the Greek cities rallied to the Achaeans' side, even slaves were freed to fight for Greek independence. In 233 BC the Aeacid royal family was deposed and a federal state was set up called the Epirote League. Also developed in this era was the complex system of astrology, which sought to determine a person's character and future in the movements of the sun, moon, and planets. In the Indo-Greek kingdom we find kings who were converts to Buddhism (e.g., Menander).  Meanwhile, in mainland Greece, the Aetolian League, which had sided with Rome against Macedon, now grew to resent the Roman presence in Greece. , Armenians and Pontus were all based on Hellenistic styles regional rulers from 189 BC, the League... 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