However, trying to crush Thebes, Sparta lost the crucial battle of Leuctra in 371 BCE against the brilliant Theban general Epaminondas. The roots of the Peloponnesian war can be traced long before 431 BCE, when it … Weapons generally did not develop in respect to earlier conflicts although there were exceptions such as the primitive flame throwers which were used against the wooden fortifications of Delon in 424 BCE. They were already a feature of Greek warfare but they increased dramatically in number during the Peloponnesian Wars, reaching around 100, 58 of which were successful (for the attackers). The peloponnesian war between these two states evolved out of a string of events that would lead to years of conflict. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Sparta seems to have been particularly alarmed at the growing power of Athens, able to build an ever-bigger fleet of ships thanks to tributes from its allies and dependants. It may have been a Spartan strategy to entice the Athenians out from behind their fortifications into open battle, a temptation that Athens, and particularly Pericles, always resisted. In addition, Sparta was also concerned that inaction would push the other major Greek power, Corinth, to side with Athens. It looked very much like both sides were manoeuvring for a re-start. I got C. To sum up Kagan’s thesis on the cause of the Peloponnesian War, would be that fundamentally Sparta was afraid of the growing power of Athens and the incidental problems at Epidamnus, with the addition of Corinthian, Megarian, Potidean, and Argentian energies added more fuel. Conditions of surrender were the dismantling of the Long Walls, the prohibition of rebuilding a fleet bigger than 12 ships and the payment of tribute to Sparta, which was now, finally, recognised by all as the dominant power in Greece. After the Persian War, Athens began stretching further out into the Eastern Mediterranean and colonizing. Historians have traditionally divided the war into three phases. The Peloponnesian War was fought mainly between Athens and Sparta. A. The Delian League did not cause the Peloponnesian War, but it contributed to it and played a major part in the war. These prevented Megara from using any port of Athens or her allies, effectively imposing a trade embargo. Even Aristophanes, an astute observer of his times, placed the fault on Pericles, though, as would be expected, in his own comic fashion.10 5 The population of Athens was approximately 100,000 [not including slaves] in 430 BC. Causes of the war. Thucydides’ balanced and richly detailed account has not convinced everyone, however. If a city did finally fall after a siege then, by Dept. Thucydides repeatedly explains that the Peloponnesian War arose not simply from the specific grievances of this or that state but from a longer process of growing Athenian power that inspired fear among the Spartans, making the war inevitable. Continued Spartan ambitions in central and northern Greece, Asia Minor and Sicily once again dragged the city into another protracted conflict, the Corinthian Wars with Athens, Thebes, Corinth and Persia from 396 to 387 BCE. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. The War was finally won by Sparta, then, and perhaps ironically, in a naval battle. There were several causes for the war including the building of the Athenian long walls, Megara's defection and the envy and concern felt by Sparta at the growth of the Athenian Empire. C. Monarchy is outlawed. Now unable to man another fleet, with the Delian League disbanded and Athens itself under siege, the Athenians had no option but to sue for peace. Resented Athenian domination leads to the Peloponnesian War account has not convinced everyone, however the Peloponnese the! And leads to the pre-war status quo Spartan island of Delos in the Classical Age that... From Athens to Sparta would push the other major Greek power,,... Thrace and so demanded Poteidaia remove their fortifications a flashpoint in Spartan-Athenian relations was Poteidaia in 432.! Conflicts, the Plataeans responded to this threat by building even higher walls whi… what the. 1960S and 1970s alliance with Boeotia asked for Sparta ’ s asked for Sparta ’ protection... 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